Among the most popular variations of the social constructionist theories is the gender role theory, considered by Alsop, Fitzsimons and Lennon as an early form of social constructionism.
Positions of power can exist in almost any setting, from small scale, unofficial groups or clubs, all the way to the obvious leaders of nations or CEOs of companies. These more official situations are found in many areas, such as government, industry and business, science and academia, the media, and many other sectors.
Gender as a factor[ edit ] Positions of power and gender are very intertwined. A journal article summarizes this relation between gender and power: In the history of the west, certainly, women have had less access to most forms of power than have men.
Many people believe that men are interested in power and getting power while women are not. Others hold that men and women differ in the ways that they establish, maintain and express power". Race, class, sexuality, age, and other factors all play a significant part in who is in control.
This traditional role of fostering and nurturing others ensued from various sources, but the results are a decrease in the value of work done by women and a decreased ability to work outside the home.
This all leads to the expectation that women have responsibilities in the home and often plays a part in occupational sexism. The view of women as caretakers of the family extends beyond the familial unit to others.
Women have traditionally been seen as caretakers, of both people and other beings and things   However, this caretaker occupation has most often been a subordinate one, under the direction of a superior, usually a man.
Studies show that "it is common for stereotypical ideas about women's abilities to perform well in leadership positions to inform people's perceptions about women leaders". Women in government For many years and in most regions of the globe, politics had not allowed women to play a significant role in government.
Even in the early s, politics were viewed almost exclusively as the domain of men. One study found: Accordingly, there are different degrees to which women partake in these different levels. For example, studies have found in India that "large scale membership of women in local councils" can be more effective in exerting influence, such as over crime rates, than "their presence in higher level leadership positions".
After earning the right to vote, it often took decades for women to turn out to the polls in numbers proportional to their male counterparts.
Today, women are enfranchised in all countries with a legislature other than Saudi Arabia.
In general, the quota system has acted as a fast-track to incorporating greater female representation into the governing systems.
Thirty percent of elected position seats was recommended as the critical mass necessary to gain effective policy from female representation. Additionally, of these 32 countries represented by women, only three, the United StatesSingaporeand Luxembourgare considered core countries, making women-represented core countries only an even smaller percentage.
Industry and business[ edit ] Further information: Women CEOs of the FortuneWomen in businessand Gender representation on corporate boards of directors Most top and high-power positions in businesses and companies are held by men[ where?
Studies have found that gender diversity in top-level boards means broader perspectives and opinions, which result in more comprehensive outcomes. Unfortunately, this did not lead to greater employment of women in higher roles.
|Men in Social Work: Brief History||Reasons behind male absence in the field have not been thoroughly investigated, though it seems clear that social stigma surrounding men in social work seems to play a significant role, as do economic factors. As a result, men are decreasingly likely to take advantage of social and mental health programs, and denying themselves employment in robust, growing fields.|
|How Americans View Women Leaders in Politics and Business | Pew Research Center||There are men in social work and many are in leadership positions. Statistics do indeed show that women outnumber men in social work fields of practiceand females outnumber males as students and graduates of social work.|
|Table of Contents||Find out what approaches work best for women who manage social services.|
New tactics need to be enacted in order to give employers incentives to hire more women, specifically for management and executive roles. Discrepancies often occur between qualities of leaders and qualities of women as leaders. Once women are respected and given credibility in the workplace, they will have the ability to occupy higher positions.
The glass ceiling is a phenomenon in which women in the workplace, climb the corporate ladder through with qualifications equal to those of their male counterparts only to find that they cannot proceed past a certain point due to gender stereotypes and their implications.
The glass ceiling most directly affects those women who spend many years working in an industry to build up achievements and a status of credibility in order to be considered for positions of power within the company or industry.You can begin your job hunt by looking for keywords like digital content, digital media, content, community, online, social marketing, social media, engagement, and interactive.
What’s in a Name? Although non-standard job titles can be confusing at first, creative titles do give you valuable information about a prospective employer.
social, economic, and political developments of the era. This essay on women and politics focuses on African American state level in legislatures and executive positions earmarked as women’s jobs, such as secretary of education and secretary of state.
Women were more successful in local government, in part because many of. Women and Leadership. Public Says Women are Equally Qualified, but Barriers Persist this report draws on data from a variety of sources to document women in leadership positions in politics (national and state levels) and in business with trends over time.
Kim Parker, director of social trends research, and Juliana Menasce Horowitz. Women in the Islamic Republic of Iran: Legal Status, Social Positions, and Collective Action Valentine M.
Moghadam* The following article was written by Valentine M. Moghadam in connection with her. The status of women can be discerned by analyzing the various depictions of the social roles of women (documents 1, 2, 4 and 8), as well as the differing accounts of their economic positions in society prior to major European influence (documents 4, 6 and 9).
Women in the Islamic Republic of Iran: Legal Status, Social Positions, and Collective Action Valentine M. Moghadam* The following article was written by Valentine M.
Moghadam in connection with her.